翻译技巧介绍——单词都认识,却感觉只可意会不可言传
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翻译技巧介绍——单词都认识,却感觉只可意会不可言传

翻译技巧
发布时间:2016-08-24作者:系统管理员

在英译汉的翻译过程中,经常要根据表达的需要进行英语中词性的相互转换,从而使表达更加通顺自然。上次我们说了第一部分,转译为动词、名词形容词的词性转化,还想复习一下的朋友可以点翻译世界栏中的翻译技巧。今天,我们来share一下实用技巧,我们来深度解析一下“为什么每个单词都认识,却感觉只可意会不可言传”的问题。

由于英汉文化差异,一一对应的翻译几乎是不可能的。如果强行按照词典释义直译,会使译文生硬难懂,甚至与原文相悖,造成意思上的误解。近几年,越来越多的同学都会说--考题中每个单词都认识,但是就是翻译不出来,只可意会不可言传。这种现象的根本原因是,许多同学只认识单词的字面意思。这时,同学们应该结合上下文语境和句间逻辑关系,从单词的基本含义入手,进行引申,从而确定最恰当的汉语词来表达。

词义引申有两种方法:抽象化和具体化

一.词义抽象化

英译汉时,为了消除直译给译文带来的阻塞感,会将英文中一些具体的、实在的词进行抽象化翻译的处理,译为汉语中抽象的、概括的词或短语。如简单的例子:There is a mixture of tiger and the ape in his character. (他的性格又残暴又狡猾。) 该句中的tiger和ape原意是老虎和猿,但在此不能直译,否则疑问无法理解。根据上下文语境,涉及到人的性格,可以将两个词进行抽象化处理,译为“残暴”和“狡猾”。

【真题实例】

例1:While there are almost as many definition of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain teh significant events of the past.【考研1999年第71题】

参考译文:

几乎每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定,但现代史学家的实践最趋向于认为历史学家是企图再现过去的重大史实并对其作出解释。

句子拆分:While there are almost as many definition of history as there are historians, //modern practice most closely conforms to one// that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain teh significant events of the past.

技巧点:

该句主干是modern practice conforms to one that..., 其中that引导定语从句修饰one

该句中的recreate原意是“再创造”,但若直译,译文会显得生硬,根据该词的宾语the significant events of the past,我们把它进行抽象化引申,译为“再现”。

例2:Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed--- and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in teh recent events in Europe.【考研2005年第46题】

参考译文:

电视是引发和传递这些感受的手段之一——在欧洲近年来发生的事件中,电视把不同的民族和国家连在了一起,起到了前所未有的重大作用。

句子拆分:Television is one of the means// by which these feelings are created and conveyed//--- and perhaps never before has it served so much// to connect different peoples and nations as in teh recent events in Europe.

技巧点:

该句主干是“Television is one of the means by which these feelings are... and perhaps never before... ”,其中which引导的定语从句修饰means

该句中的create原意是“创造”,若直译为“创造感受”,译文会显得生硬,根据该词的宾语these feelings, 我们将它进行抽象化引申,译为“引发,激发”。

例3:But his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.【考研2006年第49题】

参考译文:

但是他的首要任务并不是思考约束自己行为的道德准则,正如我们不能指望商人专注于探索行业规范一样。

句子拆分:But his primary task is not to think about the moral code// which governs his activity,// any more than a businessman is expected// to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

技巧点:

该句主干是“his primary task is not to think about the moral code which ... ”,其中which引导定语从句修饰the moral code。

该句中“govern”原意是“统治,管理”,但若直译为管理他们的行为,译文会显得生硬,根据该词的宾语his activity,我们将它进行抽象化引申,译为“约束”。

二.词义具体化

英译汉时,为了让译文更符合汉语表达,会将英文中一些抽象、笼统的词进行具体化翻译的处理,译为汉语中具体、意思明确的词或短语。如最简单的例子:They wanted to ease the tension in the Middle East.(他们想要缓解中东的紧张局势。) 该句中的tension原意是张力拉力,词义比较抽象,根据上下文语境,我们把它引申为“紧张局势”,词义就具体化了。名词具体化可以增加名词的范围、属性等。

【真题实例】

例1:And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.【考研2001年75题】

参考译文:

家用电器将会变得如此智能化,以至于控制和操作他们会引发一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁。

句子拆分:And home appliances will also become so smart// that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.

技巧点:

该句中的smart原意是聪明的、巧妙地,但若直译为“家电变得如此聪明”,译文会显得奇怪,我们把它具体化引申,译为“智能化”。

例2:The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southwest Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Spair of fabricating their data.【考研2004第63题】

参考译文:

这些新近(被)描述的语言与已经得到充分研究的欧洲和东南亚地区语言的语言往往差别显著,以至于有些学者甚至指责Boas和Sapir编造了材料。

句子拆分:The newly described languages// were often so strikingly different// from the well studied languages of Europe and Southwest Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Spair// of fabricating their data.

技巧点:

该句的主干是“The languages were different from the languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that...”,其中that引导定语从句修饰the languages of Europe and Southeast Asia.

原句中well原意是“很好地”,词义太过抽象,根据该词所修饰对象“studied”,我们将它具体化引申为“充分地”。

例3:In dealing with a cahllenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say "United we stand,divided we fall".【考研2005年第50题】

参考译文:

在应付一个如此规模的挑战过程中,我们可以好不夸张的说,“团结,我们就生存;分裂,我们就会灭亡。”

句子拆分:In dealing with a cahllenge on such a scale,// it is no exaggeration to say "United we stand,divided we fall".

技巧点:

该句中it是形式主语,真正的主语是不定式短语“to say”.

该句中的stand原意为“站起来”,fall原意为“落下去”,但若直译,译文会显得生硬难懂,根据上下文语境,我们可以将它们具体化引申,译为“成功”和“失败”。

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