法律文件翻译的特点与用词。
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法律文件翻译的特点与用词。

发布时间:2016-07-26作者:系统管理员

法律英语特点

为了体现法律的严肃性和严密性,文体:

“庄重的(solemn)”:

“刻板的(rigid)”

通过词汇和句法两方面来入手,了解法律英语的特征。

法律文件用语

5个方面:使用正式的词语;使用具有不同意义的常用词;使用古英语和中古英语中常用担当代很少使用的词;使用外来词语;使用法律术语和行话、套话。

(1) 使用正式的词语(Formal)

合同中的正式用语:

例1:使用prior 代替before

From and after the date of this Agreement, Party A shall, and shall cause its affiliates and successors to, use the same efforts to maintain the confidentiality of any Confidential Information as Party A used to maintain the confidentiality of such information prior to the date hereof. (P.28)

自本协议之日起及其后,甲方应尽力并应促使其关联公司或承继人尽力对机密信息进行保密,一如其在本协议之日前为该等机密信息保密。

例2:使用subsequent代替after

No terms or provisions of this Agreement shall be varied or modified by anyprior or subsequent statement, conduct or act of either of the Parties, except that the Parties may amend this Agreement by written instruments referring to and executed in the same manner as this Agreement. (P.38)

任何一方均不得以先前或以后的声明、举动或行为修改或变更本协议的任何条款或规定,但双方可以以本协议提及的和以本协议相同方法签署的书面文件修改本协议。

例3:使用provided that 代替but

provided that the assignee agrees in writing to be bound by all the terms and conditions of this Agreement and provides documentation as evidence that the assignee has the ability and capability of meeting all of the obligations under this Agreement.

但受让方须书面同意受本协议所有条款和条件的约束, 并提供文件证明受让方有资格、有能力履行本协议项下的全部义务。

其他还有:construe(understand), deem(consider), operate, same, object to, whereas, without, prejudice等等。

宣誓书( affividat)的正式用语: being first duly sworn, depose and says; before me, a notary public。

例4: being first duly sworn:

I certify under penalty of perjury, or after first being duly sworn, that I have provided complete and accurate responses to the items on this application.

兹本人证明本申请内容准确,完善,如有不实,甘愿严守誓言或当受伪证罪之罚。

判决书的正式用语: Now therefore, It is ordered, adjudged, and decreed 做出判决。

(2) 使用具有不同意义的常用词

action (诉讼)、alienation (转让)、 avoid (取消)、 consideration(对价)、 counterpart(有同等效力的副本)、 execute(签署)、 hand(签名)、 instrument(法律文件)、 negligence(过失)、 party(一方)、 prejudice(损害)、 presents(本法律文件)。said(上述,该)、 save(除了)、 serve(送达)。

例1. action (诉讼)

The Licensee will, at the request of the Licensor and at the Licensor’s expense, give full cooperation to the Licensor in any action or claim brought or threatened to be brought in respect of the Licensed Trademarks, including joining in as a party to any proceedings.

对于就受许可商标提起或拟将提起的诉讼或索赔,应许可方要求并由许可方支付费用,被许可方将给予充分合作,包括作为当事人参与任何诉讼。

例2.

The rights conferred upon the respective parties by the provisions of this Clause are additional to and do not prejudice any other rights the respective parties may have.

本款规定赋予各方的权利,是对各方可能享有的其他权利的补充,而不是损害。

(3) 使用古英语和中古英语中常用担当代很少使用的词

古英语(Old English):公元约1100年前的英语

中古英语(Middle English): 元约1100年至1500年间的英语

其在法律英语中的使用主要表现在以 here, there 和 where 与介词合成的词:

如:- hereafter, herein, hereof, hereto, heretofore, hereunder, herewith;

- thereafter, thereat, thereby, therefore, therefrom, therein, thereof, thereon, thereto, theretofore, thereunder, therewith;

- whereas, whereby, wherein, whereof

此外还有 aforesaid, forthwith 及作形容词用的 said 和 such

例1 :thereafter

This Agreement shall take effect on the Effective Date and shall continue for a period of ten (10) years. This Agreement shall be automatically renewed for one-year terms thereafter unless and until terminated by either Party hereto by giving six (6) months' written notice to the other.

本协议自生效日起生效,有效期为十( 10)年。此后,除非一方提前六( 6)个月向另一方发出终止本协议的书面通知,本协议逐年自动延长一( 1)年。

例 2:therewith

Licensor shall have the right but not the obligation to bring, at its own expense, an infringement action against any third party and use Licensee’s name in connection therewith and to name Licensee as a party thereto.

许可方有权利但无义务针对任何第三方提起侵权诉讼,并在诉讼中使用被许可方的名称,以及指定被许可方为诉讼的当事人,诉讼费由许可方负担。

(4) 使用外来词语

外来词语是指拉丁语,有一些已经被吸收为英语

如:affidavit(宣誓书)、 alias(化名;别名)、 alibi(不在犯罪现场)

另外一些拉丁文有:

ad hoc(专门的;专门地)、 bona fide(真诚的,真诚地)、 de facto

(事实上的)、 in re(关于)、 inter alia(除了别的因素以外)、 mutatis

mutandis(在细节上作适当修正后)、 part passu(按相同比例)、 per se

(自身)、 pro bono(为了公益)、 pro rata(按比例)

例1.

We hereby engage with drawers and/or bona fide holder that drafts drawn and negotiated on presentation and that draft accepted within the terms of this credit will be duly honored at maturity.

兹对出票人及/或善意持票人保证,凡按本信用证开具及议付的汇票一经提交即予承兑;凡依本证条款承兑之汇票,到期即予照付

(5) 使用法律术语和行话、套话

比较常见的术语:

l alibi(不在犯罪现场)、 appeal(上诉)、bail(保释)、 burden of proof(举证责任)、 cause of action(案由)、contributory negligence(与有过失)、 damages(损失赔偿金)l defendant(被告)、 due diligence(审慎调查)、 felony(重罪)l negotiable instrument(流通票据)、 novation (更替)、 plaintiff (原告)、 prejudice (损害)

套话:and for no other purposes, shall not operate as a waiver, shall not be deemed a consent, including but not limited to, or other similar or dissimilar causes, without prejudice to, nothing contained herein shall

例1:without prejudice to

a) any liability of the Company to any form of taxation whether created or imposed in the PRC or any other part of the world and, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, includes any tax computed on profits or income, any tax computed on capital assets, estate duty, profits tax, provisional profits tax, interest tax, death duty, gift duty, payroll tax withholding tax, rates, custom and excise duty, transfer tax, inheritance tax, stamp duty, capital duty, employment taxes, value added tax, and generally any tax, imposition, levy or rates or any amount payable to the revenue, customs or fiscal authorities in any part of the world;

公司须缴纳的由中国或世界任何其他地区设置或征收的任何形式的税收,在不损害前述一般性原则的情况下,包括按利润或收入计征的税款、按资本资产计征的税款、财产遗产税、利润税、临时利润税、利息税、遗产税、赠予税、工资预扣税、税率、关税和消费税、过户税、继承税、印花税、资本税、就业税、增值税及一般应向世界上任何地区的税务、海关或财政机关缴纳的任何税收、进口税、税款、税费或任何款额;

此外:名词和代词有单数和复数形式,又有性别之分,为了防止所涉及的条款出现片面性解释,在合同的“定义和解释”部分,通常都有这样“以一概全”的固定句子:

Words in the singular Include the plural and vice versa(包括复数词的单数和反之亦然);

words used in the masculine gender include every gender(表示阳性的词包含每一种性别)

法律英语

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